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Understanding “Run Command as a Login Shell” option in GNOME Terminal

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.bashrc Vs .bash_profile

In your $HOME you will find (depending the distros) two hidden files <.bashrc> and <.bash_profile> which are responsible for loading environments, starting -not GUI- programs, define functions, making alias etc, in your GNOME. The difference in quick between these two is that <.bashrc> is the place to put stuff that applies only for bash itself, where <.bash_profile> is the place to put stuff that applies to your whole session.

Many guides in popular applications seems to ignore in their examples/samples that in Linux Distros by default GNOME Terminal doesn’t act as a Login Shell; the examples don’t seem to work and users should Google around to find out what’s the issue.


Hello World Example

Let’s make a typical Hello World GJS Script and try to load it in our environment. In my $HOME:

$ mkdir .jsscripts
$ cd .jsscripts
$ gedit hello

Print a Hello World in Gnome JavaScript (GJS)

#!/usr/bin/gjs
print("hello world!");

Make it executable

$ chmod +x hello

Now I am gonna add this on $PATH through my <.bash_profile>.

$ gedit ~/.bash_profile

And add in the end of the file

export PATH=$PATH:$HOME/.jsscripts

I now open a new terminal and typing

$ hello

and I am expecting my script to be executed.

bash_helloworld

What happens is that I if we have “Run Command as a Login Shell” unchecked, Terminal won’t find our script while if we check that, it will normally run it. In this particular example we should had added the script in <.bashrc> and not in <.bash_profile>.

As a rule, system wide environment and startup programs, for login setup go in <.bash_profile>, and functions and aliases go in <.bashrc>.


A Real Example

Lets take as an example the very popular under Linux, RVM (Ruby Version Manager) installation. RVM gets installed under <~/.rvm/bin/rvm> and adds by default (in user-based installation) its environment in <.bash_profile>.

rvm-bash

As the above figure shows if we test our RVM installation

$ type rvm | head -n 1

It won’t work if we haven’t set Terminal to run commands as Login Shell. Instead we should source the script

$ source ~/.rvm/bin/rvm

that will work only for the current Terminal, or instead we can source it on our <.bashrc>, so it will work for all Terminal Sessions.

if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
   . ~/.bashrc
fi

<.bash_profile> will be executed  for remote SSH and console logins  before the initial command prompt, but when you are opening a Terminal from within GNOME Session <.bashrc> is executed before the window command prompt.

I hope that helped, but as always you can get full documentation in The Linux Documentation Project.


 
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  • Kamil Páral

    That’s not really correct. ~/.bash_profile changes will get picked up the next you log in into your GNOME session. Then it will work also in GNOME Terminal. You don’t need to run it as a login shell. If you need the changes to apply immediately, you can simply do “source ~/.bash_profile”.

    • alex285

      That will work only in remotely ssh or in console. When you start GNOME session, .bashrc executed first, so you need to source it. What is your distro?

  • http://varemenos.com/ Adonis K. (Varemenos)

    Great article, thanks for explaining the difference!
    What im wondering though, do they both contain the same options?
    Could i replace my current .bash_profile with what i have in .bashrc? (my .bash_profile is empty right now)

    • alex285

      You can check the global profile and bashrc to understand what each file should contain.
      less /etc/profile
      less /etc/bashrc

      # System wide environment and startup programs, for login setup go in .bash_profile
      # Functions and aliases go in bashrc

      Obviously what is there, applies also for your account.

  • Philip Witte

    These kinds of articles are great! Thanks!